Our Top Recommendations

  • Allen, Ann T., Women in Twentieth-Century Europe (Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2007).
  • Bock, Gisela, Women in European History (Oxford and Malden, Mass: Blackwell, 2002).
  • Fuchs, Rachel G. and Victoria E. Thompson, Women in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Houndsmill: Palgrave, 2005).
  • Offen, Karen, European Feminisms: A Political History, 1700-1950 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000
  • Simonton, Deborah (ed.), The Routledge History of Women in Europe since 1700 (London and New York: Routledge 2007)

Selected Bibliography

by Dr. Karen Hagemann

More Introductory Books and Overviews

  • Abrams, Lynn, The Making of Modern Woman: Europe 1789-1918 (London: Longmann, 2002.
  • Akkerman, Tjitske and Siep Stuurman, eds., Perspectives on Feminist Political Thought in History: From the Middle Ages to the Present (London, New York, 1998).
  • Alcoff, Linda. “Cultural Feminism versus Post-Structuralism: The Identity Crisis in Feminist Theory,” Signs 13,3 (1988).
  • Anderson, Bonnie S. and Judith P. Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present, rev. ed., 2 vols. (New York and Oxford, 2000).
  • Barker, Hannah, Elaine Chalus, eds., Women’s History: Britain, 1700-1850. Britain, 1700-1850 (Routledge: London, New York, 2005).
  • Boxer, Marilyn J., Jean H. Quataert, eds., Connecting Spheres: European Women in a Globalizing World, 1600 to the present, 2nd ed., (New York and Oxford, 2000).
  • Bridenthal, Renate, and Claudia Koonz, eds., Becoming Visible: Women in European History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987).
  • Bridenthal, Renate, Susan Mosher Stuard, Merry E. Wienser, eds., Becoming Visible: Women in European History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998).
  • Duby Georges and Michelle Perrot, eds., A History of Women in the West. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992-1994): vol. 3: Renaissance and Enlightenment Paradoxes, ed. by Natalie Zemon Davis and Areltte Farge; vol. 4.: Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War, ed. by. Geneviève Fraisse and Michelle Perrot; vol. 5.: Toward a Cultural Identity in the Twentieth Century, ed. by Françoise Thébaud.
  • Duchen, Claire and Irene Bandhauer-Schöffmann, eds., When the War Was Over: Women, War and Peace in Europe, 1940-1956 (London: Continuum, 2000).
  • Frevert, Ute, Women in German History: From Bourgeois Emancipations to Sexual Liberation (Oxford: Berg, 1989)
  • Hagemann, Karen u. Stefanie Schüler-Springorum, eds., Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in Twentieth-Century Germany (Oxford: Berg, 2002).
  • Higonnet, Margaret Randolph et. al., eds., Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars (New Haven: Yale University Press 1987).
  • Hufton, Olwen, The Prospect before Her: A History of Women in Western Europe, 1500-1800 (New York: HarperCollins, 1995).
  • McMillan, James F., France and Women, 1789-1914: Gender. Society and Politics (London, New York: Routledge, 2000).
  • Melman, Billie, ed., Borderlines: Genders and Identities in War and Peace, 1870-1930 (New York: Routledge, 1998).
  • Montgomery, Fiona and Christine Collette eds., The European Women’s History Reader (London: Routledge, 2002).
  • Purvis, June, Women’s History: Britain, 1850-1945. An Introduction (London, New York: Routledge, 1995).
  • Sluga, Glenda and Barbara Caine, eds., Gendering European History, 1780-1920 (London: Leicester University Press, 2000).
  • Smith, Bonnie G., Changing Lives: Women in European History Since 1700 (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1989).

Chronology

  • Brakeman, Lynne eds., Chronology of Women Worldwide. People, Places and Events that shaped Women’s History (Detroit, New York, Toronto, London: Gale, 1887).

Primary Source Collections 

  • Bell, Susan G. and Karen M. Offen eds., Women, The Family and Freedom: The Debate in Documents, 2 vols. vol. 1: 1750-1880; vol. 2: 1880-1950 (Stanford: Stanford University Press 1983).
  • DiCaprio, Lisa and Merry E. Wiesner eds., Lives and Voices: Sources in European Women’s History (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000).
  • Hunt, Lynn ed., The French Revolution and Human Rights. A Brief Documentary History (Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 1996)
  • Kish Sklar, Kathryn, Susan Strasser and Anja Schüler eds., Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany: A Dialogue in Documents, 1880-1933 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998).
  • Levy, Darline Gay, et. al., Women in Revolutionary Paris, 1789-1795, selected documents translated with notes and commentary, (Urbana: Illinois University Press 1979).
  • Olafson Hellerstein, Erna et. al., Victorian Women. A Documentary Account of Women’s Lives in Nineteenth- Century, England, France and the United States (Standford, Stanford University Press, 1981).
  • Owings, Alison. Frauen: German Women Recall the Third Reich, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995).
  • Riemer, Eleanor S. and John C. Fout eds., European Women: A Documentary History, 1789-1945 (New York: Schocken Books, 1980).

Introductory Literature on Selected Films

“Sense and Sensibility”:

  • Anzinger, Martina, Gainborough pictures reframed, or, Raising Jane Austen for 1990s film: a film-historic and film-analytical study for the 1955 films Sense and sensibility and Persuasion (Frankfurt am Main, New York: P. Lang, 2003).
  • Austen, Jane, Sense and sensibility, edited by James Kinsley, with an introduction by Margaret Anne Doody, notes by Claire Lamont (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).
  • Hoeveler, Diane Long, “Historiczing Jane Austen,” Clio 2004 33(3): 305-314.
  • Hopkins, Lisa, Screening the gothic (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2005)
  • Parrill, Sue, Jane Austen on film and television: a critical study of the adaptations (Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., 2002).

“A Doll`s House”:

  • Ferguson, Robert, Henrik Ibsen: A New Biography (London: Richard Cohen Books, 1996).
  • Elliott, Beverly Fritsch, “Ibsen’s Women on Stage: Feminist and Anti-Feminist Reactions to Selected English Language Productions of A Doll House, Ghosts, and Hedda Gabler.” dissertation (DAI 1987 48(2): 253-A. DA8711328).
  • Herzog, Callie Jeanne, “Nora’s Sisters: Female Characters in the Plays of Ibsen, Strindberg, Shaw, and O’Neill.” dissertation. (DAI 1983 43(9): 2988-A. DA8302879)
  • Ibsen, Henrik, A doll’s house; translated by Joan Tindale (Oslo, Norway: Solum; Portland, Or. : Distributed in the U.S. by International Specialized Book Services, 2002).
  • Popperwell, Ronald G., “ Ibsen’s Female Characters,” Scandinavica [Great Britain] 1980 19 (1): 5-12.
  • Readings on A doll’s house, ed. by Hayley R. Mitchell (San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1999).

“Rosa Luxemburg”:

  • Abraham, Richard, Rosa Luxemburg: a life for the International (Oxford, New York: Berg; New York: St.. Martin’s Press, 1989).
  • Friedman, Régine-Mihal, “Rahel, Else, Rosa und alle anderen“, Auto/Biography in Contemporary German Cinema,“ in: Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für Deutsche Geschichte [Germany] 1999 28: 367-380.
  • Jacob, Mathilde, Rosa Luxemburg: an intimate portrait, translated by Hans Fernbach with an introduction by David Fernbach (London: Lawrence & Wishart in association with Heretic Books, 2000).
  • Luxemburg, Rosa, The Rosa Luxemburg reader, ed. by Peter Hudis and Kevin B. Anderson. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2004).
  • Nettl, J. P., Rosa Luxemburg, introduction by Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken Books: Distributed by Pantheon Books, [1989], 1969).
  • Rosa Luxemburg: reflections and writings, ed. by Paul Le Blanc (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 1999).
  • Schreck, Ursula, „Rosa Luxemburg and the status of women in the socialist Party of Wilhelmine Germany,“ New England Journal of History 1995 51(3): 56-60.

“Rosenstrasse”:

  • Berlin, Rosenstrasse 2-4: Protest in der NS-Diktatur: neue Forschungen zum Frauenprotest in der Rosenstrasse 1943, ed. by Antonia Leugers (Annweiler: Plöger, 2005).
  • Confront!: resistance in Nazi Germany, ed by John J. Michalczyk (New York : P. Lang, 2004).
  • Gruner, Wolf, “The factors action and the events at the Rosenstrasse in Berlin: facts and fictions about 27 February 1943 – Sixty years later,” Central European History 36, no. 2 (2003 ): 179-208.
  • Jochheim, Gernot, Frauenprotest in der Rosenstrasse Berlin 1943: Berichte, Dokumente, Hintergründe (Teetz: Hentrich & Hentrich, 2002).
  • Stoltzfus, Nathan, Resistance of the heart: intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse protest in Nazi (New York: W.W. Norton, 1996).
  • Wydra, Thilo, Rosenstrasse: ein Film von Margarethe von Trotta: die Geschichte, die Hintergründe, die Regisseurin (Berlin: Nicolai, 2003).

“Marriage of Maria Braun”:

  • Landy, Marcia, “The presence of the past: Rainer Werner Fassbinder’s The marriage of Maria Braun,” in: The Historical Film: History and Memory in Media, ed. and with an introduction by Marcia Landy (New Brunswick, N.J : Rutgers University Press, 2001).
  • The Marriage of Maria Braun / Rainer Werner Fassbinder, director, ed. by Joyce Rheuban (New Brunswick, N.J. : Rutgers University Press, 1986).
  • Uecker, Matthias, “A Fatal Marriage: The National Subtext of Fassbinder`s Die Ehe der Maria Braun,” German Life and Letters [Great Britain] 54, no. 1 (2001): 45-59.
  • Watson, Wallace Steadman, Understanding Rainer Werner Fassbinder: Film as Private and Public Art (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996).

Brief Biographies of Important Women in Modern European History

  • Herstory: Women Who Changed the World, ed. by Ruth Ashby and Deborah Gore Ohrn; introduction by Gloria Steinem (New York: Viking, 1995).

Further Reading on Important Themes

Women and Gender History: Theoretical and Methodological Introductions

  • Bock, Gisela, “Challenging Dichotomies: Perspectives on Women’s History,” in Writing Women’s History. International Perspectives, Karen Offen et. al., eds., (Houndmills: Macmillan, 1991): 1-24.
  • Cranny-Francis, Anne et. al., eds., Gender Studies: Terms and Debates, (Houndsmill: Palgrave, 2003).
  • Hunt, Lynn, “The Challenge of Gender: Deconstruction of Categories and Reconstruction of Narratives in Gender History,” in Geschlechtergeschichte und Allgemeine Geschichte. Herausforderungen und Perspektiven, Hans Medick and Anne-Charlotte Trepp, eds., (Göttingen: Wallstein, 1998): 59-97.
  • Offen, Karen et. al., eds., Writing Women’s History: Internationa Perspectives (Houndsmill: MacMillan, 1991).
  • Rendall, Jane. The Origins of Modern Feminism. Women in Britain, France and the United States 1780-1860. (London, Macmillan, 1985)
  • Scott, Joan W., “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review, 98 ( 1986): 1053-1075.
  • Scott, Joan W., Gender and The Politics of History, rev. edn. (New York: Columbia UP, 1999).
  • Simonton, Deborah, ed. The Routledge History of Women in Europe. (London: Routledge, 2005)
  • Smith, Bonnie G., The Gender of History: Men, Women, and Historical Practice, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1998).
  • Smith, Bonnie G., ed., Women’s History in Global Perspective, vol. 1. (Urbana, Chicago: Illinois University Press, 2005).

Women’s Everyday Life in Pre-Industrial 18th Century Society

  • Gray, Marion W., “Prescriptions for Productive Female Domesticity in a Transitional Era: Germany’s Hausmutter-Literatur, 1780-1840.” In Special Issue: Women in European Culture and Society, edited by Karen Offen, History of European Ideas, 8 (1987): 413-26.
  • Gray, Marion, Productive Men and Reproductive Women: The Agrarian Household and the Emergence of Separate Spheres in the German Enlightenment (New York: Berghahn, 2000).
  • Hufton, Olwen, “Women and the Family Economy in 18th Century France,” French Historical Studies 9, no. 1 (1975): 1-22.
  • Hufton, Olwen, The Prospect Before Her: A History of Women in Western Europe, 1500-1800 (New York: HarperCollins, 1995).
  • Hufton, Olwen, “Women, Work, and the Family,” in: Natalie Zemon Davis and Arlette Farge, eds., A History of Women in the West, vol. 3: Renaissance and Enlightenment Paradoxes (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 15-45.
  • Hull, Isabell, Sexuality, State, and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996).
  • Smith, Changing Lives, pp. 6-51.
  • Wiesner, Merry E., Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe, 2nd. ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  • Wunder, Heide, He is the Sun, She is the Moon: Women in Early Modern Germany (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998).

The Enlightenment and the Debate on Women

  • Bock, Women in European History, ch. 1, pp. 1-31.
  • Bödeker, Hans Erich, Lieselotte Steinbrügge, eds., Conceptualising Woman in Enlightenment Thought (Berlin: Verlag Spitz, 2001).
  • Dawson, Ruth P., The Contested Quill: Literature by Women in Germany, 1770-1800 (Newark: Delaware University Press, 2002).
  • Goodman, Dena, „Women and the Enlightenment,“ in: Bridenthal, et. al., eds., Becoming Visible, 233-264.
  • Goodman, Dena, The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994).
  • Hull, Isabell, Sexuality, State, and Civil Society in Germany, 1700-1815 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, London 1996).
  • Joeres, Ruth-Ellen B., Mary Jo Maynes, eds., German Women in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: A Social and Literary History (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986).
  • Offen, European Feminisms, 27-76.
  • Rendall, Jane, The Origins of Modern Feminism: Women in Britain, France, and the United States, 1780-1860 (New York: Schocken, 1984).
  • Steinbrügge, Lieselotte, The Moral Sex: Women’s Nature in the French Enlightenment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

Women in Public in the Old Regime: The Court and the Salon

  • Claire, Elizabeth, “Women, Waltzing and Warfare: The Social Choreography of Revolution at the End of the Long 18th Century,” Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 2004.
  • Hertz, Deborah S., Jewish High Society in Old Regime Berlin, (New Haven: Yale UP, 1988).
  • Hertz, Debrah, “Emancipation through Intermarriage? Wealthy Jewish Salon Women in Old Berlin”, in Jewish Women in Historical Perspective, ed. Judith R. Baskin, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1991): 193-207.
  • Kale, Steven D., “Women, Salons, and the State in the Aftermath of the French Revolution,“ Journal of Women’s History 13, no. 4 (2002): 54-80.
  • Lougee, Carolyn C., Le paradis de femmes: Women, Salons, and Social Stratification in Seventeenth-Century France (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976).
  • Weckel, Ulrike, “A Lost Paradise of a Female Culture? Some Critical Questions Regarding the Scholarship on Late-Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-century German Salons,” German History, 18, no. 2 (2000): 310-336.

Gender in the Age of the French Revolution

  • Applewhite, Harriet B. and Darline G. Levy, “Women and Militant Citizenship in Revolutionary Paris,” in Rebel Daughters: Women and the French Revolution, ed. Sara E. Melzer and Leslie W. Kabine, (New York: Oxford University Press 1992): 79-101.
  • Applewhite, Harriet B. and Darline G. Levy, “A Political Revolution for Women? The Case of Paris,” in Becoming Visible, 265-294
  • Bock, Women in European History,  32-81.
  • Fuchs and Thompson, Women, 5-23.
  • Godineau, Dominique, “Daughers of Liberty and Revolutionary Citizens,” in A History of Women in the West, vol. 4: Emerging Feminism from Revolution to World War, ed. Geneviève Fraisse, Michelle Perrot, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 15-32.
  • Godineau, Dominique, The Women of Paris and Their French Revolution, trans. Katherine Streip, (Berkeley: California University Press, 1998).
  • Hufton, Olwen H., Women and the Limits of Citizenship in the French Revolution (Toronto: Toronto University Press, 1992).
  • Hunt, Lynn, The Family Romance of the French Revolution (Berkeley: California University Press, 1992).
  • Landes, Joan B., “Republican Citizenship and Hetereosocial Desire: Concepts of Masculinity in Revolutionary France,” in Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History, ed. Stefan Dudink, Karen Hagemann, and John Tosh (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004): 96-115.
  • Landes, Joan B., Visualizing the Nation: Gender, Representation, and Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001).
  • Landes, Joan B., Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988).
  • Scott, Joan W., Only Paradoxes to Offer: French Feminists and the Rights of Man (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996).

Rousseau, Wollstonecraft and Hippel: A Debate

  • Dawson, Ruth P. “The Feminist Manifesto of Theodore Gottlieb von Hippel. (1941-96),” Amsterdamer Beiträge 10 (1980): 13-32.
  • Hippel, Theodore Gottlieb von, On Improving the Status of Women (1790), trans. Timothy F. Sellner, (Detroit: Wayne State UP, 1979).
  • Lange, Lynda ed., Feminist Interpretations of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (University Park: Penn State University Press 2002).
  • Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, Emile, or, Treatise on Education (1762), trans. William H. Payne, (Amherst: Prometheus, 2003).
  • Taylor, Barbara, “Mary Wollstonecraft and the Wild Wish of Earl Feminism,” History Workshop Journal, 33 (1992): 197-219
  • Taylor, Barbara, Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary, A Vindication of the Rights of Man; With, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, and Hints (1792), ed, Sylvana Tomaselli, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

Gender, War and Nation in Napoleonic Europe

  • Adams, The Making of Modern Women, ch. 8, pp. 213-241
  • Sluga and Caine, Gendering European History, 1780-1920, ch. 3, 55-86.
  • Colley, Linda, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837, (New Haven: Yale UP, 1992).
  • Hagemann, Karen,”Female Patriots: Women, War and the Nation in the Period of the Prussian-German Anti-Napoleonic Wars,” Gender & History 16,3 (2004): 396-424.
  • Hagemann, Karen, “A Valorous Volk Family: The Nation, the Military, and the Gender Order in Prussia in the Time of the Anti-Napoleonic Wars, 1806-15,” in Gendered nations: Nationalisms and Gender Order in the Long Nineteenth Century, ed. Ida Blom, Karen Hagemann and Catherine Hall, (Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000): 179-205.
  • Hagemann, Karen, “Of Manly Valor’ and ‘German Honor’: Nation, War and Masculinity in the Age of the Prussian Uprising against Napoleon,” Central European History 30 (Winter 1997): 187-220.
  • Heuer, Jennifer, “Hats on for the Nation! Women, Citizens, Soldiers, and the ‘Sign of the French’,” French History 16 (2002): 28-52.
  • Hopkin, David, “Female Soldiers and the Battle of the Sexes in France: The Mobilization of a Folk Motif,” History Workshop Journal 56 (2003): 78-104.
  • Lin, Patricia Y. C. E., “Citizenship, Military, Families and the Creation of a New Definition of Deserving Poor’ in Britain, 1793-1815,” Social Politics 7 (2000): 5-46.
  • Macleod, Emma Vincent, “Women at War: British women and the Debate on the Wars against Revolutionary France in the 1790s’,” Enlightenment and Dissent 15 (1996): 3-32.
  • Quataert, Jean, Staging Philanthrophy. Patriotic Women and the National Imagination in Dynastic Germany, 1813-1916 (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 2001).
  • Wilson, Kathleen, The Island Race: Englishness, Empire and Gender in the Eighteenth Century (London: Routledge, 2003).
  • Zantop, Susanne, Colonial Fantasies: Conquest, Family, and the Nation in Precolonial Germany, 1770-1870 (Durham: Duke University Press 1997).

Early Feminist Voices in the Era of Democratic Revolutions between 1830 und 1849

  • Bock, Women, 82-126.
  • Caine and Sluga, Gendering European History, pp. 55-86.
  • Herzog, Dagmar, Intimacy and Exclusion: Religious Politics in Pre-Revolutionary Baden. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).
  • Herzog, Dagmar, “ Religious Dissent and the Roots of German Feminism,” in Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey, (Durham: Duke University Press1997): 81-100.
  • Joeres, Ruth-Ellen B., “Louise Otto and Her Journal: A Chapter in Nineteenth-Century German Feminism,” Internationales Archiv fur Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur (1980).
  • Levine, Philippa, Victorian Feminism, 1850-1900 (London: Hutchinson, 1987).
  • Moses, Claire G., French Feminism in the Nineteenth Century (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984).
  • Offen, European Feminisms, 77-108.
  • Paletschek, Sylvia and Bianka Pietrow-Ennker, eds., Women’s Emancipation Movements in the 19th century: A European Perspective (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004).
  • Rendall, Jane ed., Equal or Different: Women’s Politics, 1800-1914 (Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Marriage, Family, and the Household in 19th Century Women’s Lives

  • Abrams, Lynn, “Companionship and Conflict: the Negotiation of Marriage Relations in the Nineteenth Century,” in Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997), 101-120.
  • Abrams, Modern Women, 67-148.
  • Anderson and Zinsser, A History, 227-247.
  • Bajohr, Stefan, “Illegitimacy and Working Class: Illegitimate Mothers in Brunswick, 1900-33,” in The German Working Class, 1888-1933: The Politics of Everyfday Life, ed. Richard J. Evans, (London: Croom Helm, 1982), 142-73
  • Davidoff, Leonore and Catherine Hall, Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class, 1780-1850 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1987).
  • Hausen, Karin, “Family and Role Division: The Polarization of Sexual Stereotypes in the Nineteenth Century – An Aspect of the Dissociation of Work and Family,” in The German Family: Essays on the Social History of the Family in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Germany, ed. Richard J. Evans and W.R. Lee (London: Croom Helm, 1981): 51-83.
  • Jacobi-Dittrich, Juliane, “Growing up Female in the Nineteenth Century,” in German Women in the Nineteenth Century, ed. John Fout (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984),177-217.
  • Kaplan, Marion A. “For Love or Money: Marriage Strategies of Jews in Imperial Germany,” in Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 28 (1983): 263-300.
  • Kaplan, Marion A. “Priestess and Hausfrau: Women and Tradition in the German-Jewish Family,” in The Jewish Family: Myths and Reality, ed. Steven Cohen and Paula Hyman (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1986), 62-81.
  • Kaplan, Marion A., The Making of the Jewish Middle Class: Women, Family, and Identity in Imperial Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
  • Meyer, Sibylle, “The Tiresome Work of Conspicuous Leisure: On the Domestic Duties of the Wives of Civil Servants in the German Empre (1871-1918),” in Boxer and Quataert, Connecting Spheres, 185-193.
  • Peterson, M. Jeanne, Family, Love, and Work in the Lives of Victorian Gentlewomen (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989).
  • Roberts, James, Drink, Temperance and the Working Class in 19th Century Germany (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1981).
  • Ross, Ellen, “Fierce questions and taunts: married life in working-class London 1870-1914,” Feminist Studies 8, no. 3 (1982): 575-602.
  • Ross, Ellen, “Labour and Love: Rediscovering London’s Working-Class Mothers, 1870-1918,” in Labor and Love: Women’s Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940, ed. Jane Lewis (Oxford, New York, 1986).
  • Ross, Ellen, “Survival Networks: Women’s Neighbourhood Sharing in London before World War I,” History Workshop Journal 15, no.1 (1983): 5-27.
  • Ross, Ellen, Love and Toil, Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918 (New York: Oxford University Press 1993).
  • Segalen, Martine, Love and Power in the Peasant Family. Rural France in the Nineteenth Century, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983).
  • Smith, Bonnie G., Ladies of the Leisure Class: The Bourgeoises of Northern France in the Nineteenth Century, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987).
  • Smith, Changing Lives, 181-204 and 282-288.
  • Tomes, Nancy. “A ‘Torrent of Abuse,’ Crimes of Violence between Working-Class Men and Women, 1840-1875,” Journal of Social History 11, no. 3 (Spring 1978): 328-45.
  • Tosh, John, A Man’s Place: Masculinity and the Middle-Class Home in Victorian England, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999).
  • Tosh, John, “Authority and Nurture in Middle-Class Fatherhood: The Case of Early and Mid-Victorian England,” in Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-century Britain: Essays on Gender, Family, and Empire (Harlow: Pearson Longman, 2005): 129-147.

Sex, Sexuality and Reproduction in 19th Century Women’s Lives

  • Abrams, Lynn, “Prostitutes in Imperial Germany, 1870-1914: Working Girls or Social Outcast?” in: The German Underworld, ed. Richard J. Evans (New York: Routledge, 1988), 189-209.
  • Abrams, Lynn, Workers’ Culture in Imperial Germany: Leisure and Recreation in the Rhineland and Westphalia (London: HarperCollins, 1992).
  • Abrams, Modern Women, 149-176.
  • Corbin, Alain. “Commercial Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century France: A System of Images and Regulations.” in The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Ninteteenth Century. ed. Catherine Gallagher and Thomas Laqueur (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).
  • Dauphin, Cécile, “Single Women,” in A History of Women, vol. 4, 427-442.
  • Eder, Franz, Sexualized Subjects: Medical Discourses on Sexuality in German-speaking Countries in the Late Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries, (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1995).
  • Evans, Richard J., “Prostitution, State and Society in Imperial Germany,” Past and Present 70, no. 1 (1976): 106-129.
  • Frevert, Ute, “The Civilizing Tendency to Hygiene: Working class Women under Medical Control in Imperial Germany,” in German Women in the Nineteenth Century, ed. John Fout, (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984), 320-44.
  • Fuchs and Thompson, Women, 24-42.
  • Harsin, Jill, Policing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century Paris, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).
  • Ittmann, Karl, Work, Gender and Family in Victorian England (Washington Square: New York University Press, 1995).
  • Jeffreys, Sheila, The Spinster and Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality, 1880-1930 (London: Pandora, 1985).
  • Mahood, Linda, The Magdalenes: Prostitution in the Nineteenth Century, (London: Routledge, 1990).
  • Masson, J. Moussaieff, A Dark Science: Women, Sexuality, and Psychiatry in the Nineteenth Century, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Gireaux, 1986).
  • Neuman, Robert. “The Sexual Question and Social Democracy in Imperial Germany,” Journal of Social History 7 (1974): 371-86.
  • Neuman, Robert. “Working Class Birth Control in Wilhelmine Germany,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 20 (1978): 513-24.
  • Smith, Changing Lives, 345-347.
  • Tilly, Louise, Joan W. Scott, Miriam Cohen, Women’s Work and European Fertility Patterns. (Ann Arbor: Michigan UP, 1974).
  • Vicinus, Martha, Independent Women: Work and Community for Single Women, 1850-1920. (Chicago: Chicago University Press 1985).
  • Walcowitz, Judith R., “Dangerous Sexualities,” Fraisse and Perrot, A History of Women, vol. 4, 359-398.
  • Walkowitz, Judith R., Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class, and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980).
  • Walkowitz, Judy, “The Making of an Outcast Group: Prostitutes and Working Women in Nineteenth-Century Plymouth and Southampton,” in A widening Sphere: Changing Roles of Victorian Women, ed. Martha Vicinus, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1977): 72-93.
  • Walkowitz, Judy, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London, (Chicago: Chicago University Press 1992).

Working for a Living – 19th Century Women’s Work Experiences

  • Abrams, Modern Women, 175-210.
  • Adams, Carole, Women Clerks in Wilhelmine Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
  • Anderson and Zinsser, A History, 248-277.
  • Bachrach, Susan, Dames Employees: The Feminization of Postal Work in Nineteenth-Century France (New York: Haworth, 1984).
  • Canning, Kathleen, Languages of Labor and Gender: Female Factory Work in Germany, 1850-1914, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996).
  • Clark, Anna, The Struggle for the Breeches: Gender and the Making of the British Working Class, (Berkeley: California University Press, 1997).
  • Coffin, Judith G. The Politics of Women’s Work: The Paris Garment Trades , 1750-1915 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996).
  • Frader, Laura, “Doing Capitalism’s Work: Women in Western European Industrial Economy,” in Becoming Visible, 295-326.
  • Franzoi, Barbara, At the Very Least She Pays the Rent: Women and German Industrialization (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press,1985).
  • Fuchs and Thompson, Women, pp. 61-83.
  • Koditschek, Theodore, “The Gendering of the British Working Class,” Gender and History 9.no. 2 (1997), 333-63.
  • Maynes, Mary Jo. “Gender and Class in Working-Class Women’s Autobiographies,” in German Women in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, ed. Ruth Ellen B. Joeres and Mary Jo Maynes, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), 230-46.
  • Maynes, Mary Jo, Taking the Hard Road: Life Course in French and German Workers’ Autobiographies in the Era of Industrialization (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press, 1987).
  • Quataert, Jean H. “Teamwork in Saxon Homeweaving Families in the Nineteenth Century: A Preliminary Investigation into the Issue of Gender and Work Roles.” German Women in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, 3-23.
  • Rose, Sonya O., Limited Livelihoods: Gender and Class in Nineteenth-Century England (Berkeley: California University Press, 1992).
  • Schulte, Regina. “Peasants and Farmers’ Maids: Female Farm Servants in Bavaria at the End of the Nineteenth Century,” in German Peasantry, ed. Richard J. Evans and W. Robert Lee (London: Croom Helm, 1986), 158-73.
  • Scott, Joan W., “The Women Worker”, in A History of Women, vol. 4, 399-427.
  • Smith, Changing Lives, 138-180,
  • Valenze, Deborah, The First Industrial Woman (New York: Oxford University Press 1995).

The Middle Class Women’s Movement in late 19th and early 20th Century Europe

  • Abrams, Modern Women, 265-285.
  • Accampo, Elinor Ann, Rachel G. Fuchs, and Mary Lynn Stewart, eds., Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press 1995).
  • Allen, Ann Taylor, Feminism and Motherhood in Germany, 1800-1914, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991).
  • Anderson and Zinsser, A History, pp. 350-370.
  • Bland, Lucy. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1883-1914. (London: Penguin, 1995).
  • Baumann, Ulla. “Emancipation, and Politics in the Confessional Women’s Movement in Germany, 1900-1933,” in Borderlines: Genders and Identities in War and Peace 1870-1930, ed. Billie Melman, (New York: Routledge, 1998): 285-306.
  • Bock, Gisela and Pat Thane, eds., Maternity and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of European Welfare States, 1880s-1950s (London: Routledge, 1991).
  • Bock, Women, 127-174.
  • Evans, Richard, The Feminist Movement in Germany, 1894-1933 (London: Sage, 1976).
  • Fuchs and Thompson, Women, 137-176.
  • Hause, Steven with Anne Kenney, Women’s Suffrage and Social Politics in Third Republic France, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
  • Hollis, Patricia, Ladies Elect: Women in English Local Government, 1865 – 1914, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989).
  • Holtman, Sandra, Feminism and Democracy.Women’s Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
  • Kaplan, Marion, The Jewish Feminist Movement in Germany: The Campaigns of the Jüdischer Frauenbund 1904-1938 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1979).
  • Levine, Philippa, Victorian Feminism, 1850-1900 (London: Hutchinson, 1987).
  • Liddington, Jill and Jill Norris, One Hand Tied behind Us: The Rise of the Women’s Suffrage Movement (London: Virago, 1978).
  • Michel, Sonya and Seth Koven, eds., Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States (New York: Routledge, 1993).
  • Michel, Sonya and Seth Koven, “Womanly Duties: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States in France, Germany, Great Britain and the United States,” American Historical Review 95, no. 4 (1990): 1076-1108.
  • Morgan, David, Suffragists and Liberals: The Politics of Woman Suffrage in England. (Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield, 1975).
  • Offen, European Feminisms, 108-212.
  • Offen, Karen, “Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach,” Signs 14, no. 1 (1988): 119-157.
  • Offen, Karen, “Feminism, Antifeminism, and National Family Politics in Early Third Republic France,” in Boxer and Quataert, Connecting Spheres, 204-214.
  • Offen, Karen, “Conceptualizing the Theory and Practice of Feminism in Nineteenth–Century Europe (1789-1914),” in Becoming Visible, 327-357.
  • Purvis, June and Sandra Stanley Holton, eds., Votes for Women (London: Routledge, 2000).
  • Reagin, Nancy R., A German Women’s Movement, Class and Gender in Hannover, 1880-1933, (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press, 1995).
  • Rendall, Jane, Equal or Different: Women’s Politics, 1800-1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987).

The Socialist Women’s Movement in late 19th and early 20th Century Europe

  • Abrams, Modern Women, 285-297.
  • Anderson and Zinsser, A History, 271-405.
  • Boxer, Marilyn and Jean Quataert, Socialist Women: European Socialist Feminism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century (New York:Elsevier North Holland, 1978).
  • Evans, Richard J., Comrades and Sisters: Feminism, Socialism and Pacifism in Europe, 1870-1945, (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987).
  • Hilden, Patricia, Working Women and Socialist Politics in France 1880-1914: A Regional Study, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).
  • Kaplan, Marion, “Sisterhood under Siege: Feminism and Anti-aemitism in Germany, 1904-1938,” in When Biology became Destiny, ed. Renate Bridenthal, Atina Grossmann, and Marion Kaplan (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984), 174-96.
  • Lopes, Anne and Gary Roth, Men’s Feminism: August Bebel and the German Socialist Movemen, (Amherst: Humanity, 2000).
  • Pore, Renate, A Conflict of Interest: Women in Early German Social Democracy, (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1981).
  • Quataert, Jean H., Reluctant Feminists in Germans Social Democracy: 1885-1917 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979).
  • Sowerwine, Charles, Sisters or Citizens? Women and Socialism in France Since 1876 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Sowerwine, Charles, “Socialism, Feminism and the Socialist Women’s Movement from the French Revolution to World War II,” in Becoming Visible, 357-388.
  • Taylor, Barbara, Eve and the New Jerusalem: Socialism and Feminism in the Nineteenth Century, (New York: Pantheon, 1983).
  • Thönnessen, Werner, The Emancipation of Women: The Rise and Decline of the Women’s Movement in German Social Democracy 1863-1933 (London:Pluto, 1973).

Gender, Nationalism and Imperialism

  • Abrams, Modern Women, pp. 213-242 and 243-264.
  • Burton, Antoinette, “Fearful Bodies into Disciplined Bodies: Pleasure, Romance, and the Family Drama of Colonial Reform in Mary Carpenter’s ‘Six Months in India,'” Signs 20, no. 3 (Spring. 1995): 545-74.
  • Burton, Antoinette, “Remapping Colonial Cultures: Feminist Perspectives,” Radical History Review 66 (Fall 1996).
  • Burton, Antoinette, “‘States of Injury’: Josephine Butler on Slavery, Citizenship and the Boer War,” in Women’s Suffrage in the British Empire: Citizenship, Nation, and Race, ed. Ian Christopher Fletcher, Laura E. Nym Mayhall and Philippa Levine (London: Routledge, 2000), 18-32.
  • Burton, Antoinette, “Women and ‘Domestic’ Imperial Culture: the Case of Victorian Britain,” in Boxer and Quataert, Connecting Spheres, 174-184
  • Burton, Antoinette, Burdens of History: British Feminists, Indian Women, and Imperial Culture, 1865-1915 (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press, 1994).
  • Caine, Barbara, English Feminism 1780-1980 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997)
  • Chickering, Roger, “‘Casting their Gaze More Broadly’. Women’s Patriotic Activism in Imperial Germany,” Past & Present 118 (1988): 156-185.
  • Clark, Anna, “Gender, Class, and the Nation: Franchise Reform in England, 1832-1928.” in Re-reading the Constitution: New Narratives in the Political History of England’s Long Nineteenth Century. ed. James Vernon, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996).
  • Dawson, Graham, Soldier Heroes. British Adventures, Empire and the Imagining of Masculinities, (London: Routledge, 1994).
  • Gittings, Christopher E., ed., Imperialism and Gender: Constructions of Masculinity (New Lambton, NSW: Dangaroo, 1996).
  • Hall, Catherine, “‘From Greenland’s Toy Mountains … to Africa’s Golden Sand’: Ethnicity, Race and Nation in Mid-19th Century England,” Gender & History 5 (Summer 1993): 212-30.
  • Hall, Catherine, Keith McClelland and Jane Rendall, Defining the Victorian Nation: Class, Race, Gender and the Reform Act of 1867 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  • Hull, Isabel V.: Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2005).
  • Kemlein, Sophia, ed.., Geschlecht und Nationalismus in Mittel- und Osteuropa, 1848-1918, (Osnabrück: Fibre, 2000).
  • Kent, Susan Kingsley. Gender and Power in Britain, 1640-1990 (London: Routledge, 1999)
  • McClintock, Anne, “‘No Longer in a Future Heaven’: Nationalism, Gender, and Race,” in Becoming National: A Reader, ed. Geoff Eley and Ronald Grigor Suny,(New York: Oxford University Press 1996), 260-286.
  • McClintock, Anne, Aamir Mufti and Ella Shohat eds., Dangerous Liaisons: Gender, Nation, Postcolonial Perspectives, (Minneapolis: Minnesota University Press, 1997).
  • McClintock, Anne, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (New York: Routledge, 1995).
  • Moses, Claire. French Feminism in the Nineteenth Century (Albany, SUNY University Press, 1984)
  • Offen, European Feminisms,  213-250.
  • Quataert, Jean H. “German Patriotic Women’s Work in War and Peace Time, 1864-90,” in On the Road to Total War: The American Civil War and the German Wars of Unification, 1861-1871, ed. Stig Förster and Jörg Nagler, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997): 448-477.
  • Reagin, Nancy Ruth, “The Imagined Hausfrau: National Identitiy, Domesticity, and Colonialism in Imperial Germany,” The Journal of Modern History 73, no. 1 ( 2001): 54-86.
  • Schaser, Angelika, “Women in the Nation of Men: The Politics of the Leagues of Germans’s Women Associations (BDF) in Imperial Germany, 1894-1914,” in: Blom, Hagemann, and Hall, Gendered Nations, 249-270.
  • Tosh, John, “Manliness, Masculinities, and the New Imperialism, 1880-1900,” in John Tosh, Manliness and Masculinities in Nineteenth-century Britain, 192-214.
  • Wildenthal. Lora, German Women for Empire, 1884-1945 (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001).

Home/Front: The Gender Order of the First World War I: Men and Masculinities

  • Adams, Michael C.G., The Great Adventure: Male Desire and the Coming of World War I, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990).
  • Boorman, Derek. At the Going Down on the Sun: British First World War Memorials. (York: William Sessions Ltd., 1979).
  • Bourke, Joanna, An Intimate History of Killing: Face-to-Face Killing in Twentieth-Century Warfare, (New York: Basic Books, 1999).
  • Bourke, Joanna, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1996).
  • Buckley, Suzann. “The Failure to Resolve the Problem of Venereal Disease among the Troops in Britain during World War I.” in War and Society: A Yearbook of Military History. vol. 2. ed. Brian Bond and Ian Hay. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1977).
  • Cain and Sluga, Gendering European History, 143-172
  • Clements, Barbara Evans, Rebecca Friedman, and Dan Healy, eds., Russian Masculinities in History and Culture (New York: Palgrave, 2002).
  • Darracott, Joespeh, ed. The First World War in Posters (New York: Dover, 1974).
  • Dawson, Graham, Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire, and the Imagining of Masculinities, (London: Routledge, 1994).
  • Funck, Marcus,Ready for War? Conceptions of Military Manliness in the Prusso-German Officer Corps before the First World War,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century Germany, ed. Karen Hagemann and Stefanie Schüler-Springorum (Oxford: Berg, 2002).
  • Gilbert, Sandra, “Soldier’s Heart: Literary Men, Literary Women, and the Great War,” in Signs 8, no. 3 (1983): 22-50.
  • Hagemann, Karen. “Home/Front: The Military, Violence and Gender in the Age of the World Wars.” In Home/Front: The Military War and Gender in 20th Century Germany.
  • Jamieson, Ruth, “The Man of Hobbes: Masculinity and Wartime Necessity,” Journal of Historical Sociology, 9, no. 1 (1996), 19-42.
  • Kienitz, Sabine. Body Damage: War Disability and Constructions of Masculinity in Weimar Germany.” In Home/Front: The Military War and Gender in 20th Century Germany.
  • Koller, Christian.Enemy Images: Race and Gender Stereotypes in the Discussion on Colonial Troops: A Franco-German Comparison, 1914-1923.” In Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century Germany.
  • Kühne, Thomas. “Comradeship: Gender Confusion and Gender Order in the German Military, 1918-1945,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century Germany, ed. Karen Hagemann and Stefanie Schüler-Springorum, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002): 233-254.
  • Lerner, Paul Frederick, Hysterical Men: War, Psychiatry, and the Politics of Trauma in Germany, 1890-1930, (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003).
  • Lerner, Paul, “Hysterical Cures: Hypnosis, Gender and Performance in World War I and Weimar Germany,” History Workshop Journal 45 (1998): 79-101.
  • Levine, Philippa, “Battle Colors. Race, Sex, and Colonial Soldiery in World War I,” Journal of Women’s History 9,4 (1998): 104-130.
  • Melzer, Annabelle. “Spectacles and Sexualities: The ‘Mise-en-Scene’ of the ‘Tirailleur Senegalais’ on the Western Front, 1914-1920.” in Borderlines.
  • Mosse, George L., Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990).
  • Roper, Michael, “Maternal Relations: Moral Manliness and Emotional Survival in Letters Home during the First World War,” in Masculinitites in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History, ed. Stefan Dudink, Karen Hagemann, and John Tosh (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004): 295-316.
  • Smith, Leonard V. “Masculinity, Memory, and the French First World War Novel: Henri Barbusse and Roland Dorgeles.” in Authority, Identity and the Social History of the Great War. ed. Marilyn Shevin-Coetzee and Frans Coetzee (Providence: Berghahn, 1995).
  • Thébaud, Francoise, The Great War and the Triumph of Sexual Division, in A History of Women in the West, vol. 5: Towards a Cultural Identity in the Twentieth Century, ed. Françoise Thébaud, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994): 20-75.

Home/Front: The Gender Order of the First World War II: Women during the War

  • Abrams, Modern Women, pp. 297-323.
  • Beauman, Nicola. “It is Not the Place of Women to Talk of Mud:’ Some Responses by British Novelists to World War I.” in Women and World War I: The Written Response. ed. Dorothy Goldman. (Houndsmills: Macmillan, 1993).
  • Cardinal, Agnes, Dorothy Goldman, and Judith Hattaway, Women’s writing on the First World War, (Oxford: University Press, 1999).
  • Cardinal, Anges. “Women and the Language of War in France.” in Women and World War I: The Written Response.
  • Condell, Diana, and Jean Liddiard.. Working for Victory?: Images of Women in the First World War, 1914-1918. (London: Routledge, 1987).
  • Cooper, Helen M., Adrienne Auslander Munich, and Susan Merril Squirer, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993).
  • Cooper, Sandi E., “Women in War and Peace, 1914-1945,” in Becoming Visible, 439-462.
  • Crofton, Eileen, The Women of Royaumont: A Scottish Women’s Hospital on the Western Front, (East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 1997).
  • Daniel, Ute, The War from Within: German Working-Class Women in the First World War, (Oxford: Berg, 1997).
  • Darrow, Margaret H., French Women and the First World War: War Stories of the Home Front, (Oxford: Berg, 2000).
  • Darrow, Margaret H. “French Volunteer Nursing and the Myth of War Experience in World War I.” American Historical Review 101, no. 1 (February 1996).
  • Davis, Belinda J.,Homefront: Food, Politics and Women’s Everyday Life during the First World War,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century Germany, 115-139.
  • Davis, Belinda J., Home Fires Burning: Food, Politics and Everyday Life in World War I Berlin, (Chapel Hill: North Carollina University Press 2000).
  • Domansky, Elisabeth, “Militarization and Reproduction in World War I Germany,” in Society, Culture, and the State in Germany, 1870-1930, ed. Geoff Eley, (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1997): 426-454.
  • Downs, Laura Lee, Manufacturing Inequality: Gender Division in the French and British Metalworking Industries, 1914-1939. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995).
  • Downs, Laura Lee. “Women’s Strikes and the Politics of Popular Egalitarianism in France, 1916-1918.” in Rethinking Labor History: Essays on Discourse and Class Analysis. ed. Leonard Berlanstein. (Urbana: Illinois University Press, 1993).
  • Dwork, Deborah. War is Good for Babies and Other Young Children: A History of the Infant and Child Welfare Movement in England, 1898-1918. (London: Tavistock, 1987).
  • Ewing, Elizabeth. Women in Uniform through the Centuries. (London: B.T. Batsford, 1975).
  • Fridenson, Patrick, ed. The French Home Front, 1914-1918. trans. Bruce Little and Helen McPhail. (Providence: Berg, 1992).
  • Fridenson, Patrick, The French Home Front, 1914-1918, (Oxford: Berg 1993).
  • Fuller, J.G. Troop Morale and Popular Culture in the British and Dominion Armies, 1914-1918. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991).
  • Gilbert, Sandra, “Soldier’s Heart: Literary Men, Literary Women, and the Great War,” Signs, 8, no. 3 ( 1983): 22-50.
  • Goldman, Dorothy, ed., Women and World War I. The Written Response (New York: St. Martin’s Press 1993).
  • Gould, Jenny. “Women’s Military Services in First World War Britain.” in Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars. ed. Margaret Higonnet, et. al. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
  • Grayzel, Susan R., “The Outward and Visible Sign of her Patriotism. Women, Uniforms and Nationals Service during the First World War,” in Twentieth Century British History 8 (1997): 145-164.
  • Grayzel, Susan R., “Mothers, Marraines, and Prostitutes: Morales and Morality in First World War France, in International Historical Review 19, no. 1 (1997): 66-82.
  • Grayzel, Susan R., Women and the First World War (London: Berg, 2002).
  • Grayzel, Susan, Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France During the First World War (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press, 1999).
  • Grayzel, Susan R. “‘The Mothers of Our Soldiers’ Children’: Motherhood, Immorality, and the War Baby Scandal, 1914-1918.” in Maternal Instincts: Motherhood and Sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925. ed. Claudia Nelson and Ann Summer Holmes. (Houndsmills: Macmillan, 1997).).
  • Greenhut, Jeffrey, “Race, Sex and War. The Impact of Race and Sex on Morale and Health Services on the Western Front 1914,” Military Affairs 45 (1981): 71-74.
  • Gullace, Nicolette F., “Sexual Violence and Family Honor. British Propaganda and International Law during the First World War,” American Historical Review 102 (1997): 714-747.
  • Gullace, Nicoletta, F. “White Feathers and Wounded Men: Female Patriotism and the Memory of the Great War.” Journal of British Studies 36, no. 2 (1997).
  • Guttmann, Barbara, Weibliche Heimarmee: Frauen in Deutschland 1914-1918, (Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag, 1989).
  • Harris, Ruth, “The ‘Child of the Barbarian’. Rape, Race, and Nationalism in France during the First World War,” Past & Present 141 (1993): 170-206.
  • Harrison, Brian, Separate Spheres: The Opposition to Women’s Suffrage during the Great War (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978).
  • Haste, Cate. Keep the Home Fires Burning: Propaganda in the First World War (London: Allen Lane, 1977).
  • Hause, Stephen, “More Minerva than Mars.” in Behind the Lines, Gender and the Two World Wars.
  • Hausen, Karin, “The German Nation’s Obligations to the Heroes’ Widows of World War I,” in Behind the Lines:
  • Gender and the Two World Wars, ed. Margaret R. Higonnet et. al. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987): 126-40.
  • Healy, Maureen, “Becoming Austrian: Women, the State, and Citizenship in World War I,” Central European History. 35, no. 1 (2002), 1-35.
  • Healy, Maureen, Vienna and the Fall of the Habsburg Empire. Total War and Everyday Life in World War I (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005).
  • Higgonet, Margaret, Jean Jenson, Sonya Michel, and Margaret Weitz, eds., Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
  • Higonnet, Margaret R., ed., Lines of Fire. Women Writers of World War I (New York: Plume, 1999).
  • Hirschfield, Magnus. The Sexual History of the World War (New York: Panurge Press, 1934).
  • Horne, John N. Labour at War: France and Britain, 1914-1918 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991).
  • Imperial War Museum, The Women at Work Collection from the Imperial War Museum, Lambeth, London (Brighton: Harvester, 1986).
  • Kellogg, Charlotte, Women of Belgium: Turning Tragedy to Triumph (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1917).
  • Kennedy, Kathleen, Disloyal Mothers and Scurrilous Citizens. Women and Subversion during World War I (Bloomington: Indiana University Press), 1999.
  • Kundrus, Birthe. “Gender Wars: The First World War and the Construction of Gender Relations in the Weimar Republic,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century.
  • Lamm, Doron. “Emily Goes to War: Explaining the Recruitment to the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps in World War I.” in Borderlines: Genders and Identities in War and Peace.
  • Leneman, Leah, In the service of life: the story of Elsie Inglis and the Scottish Wome’s Hospitals, (Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 1994).
  • Lomas, Janis, “‘Delicate Duties’: Issues of Class and Respectability in Government Policy towards the Wives and Widows of British Soldiers in the Era of the Great War,” Women’s History Review 9, no. 1 (2000): 123-147.
  • MacIsaac, Pamela, “To Suffer and Serve”: British Military Dependents, Patriotism and Gender in the Great War, Ph.D. dissertation, McMaster University, 1997.
  • Marwick, Arthur. Women at War, 1914-1918.(London: Croom Helm, 1977).
  • Morey, Anne. :Sexuality, Maternity, Femininity in Films Exhibited in Britain, 1914-1919.” in Maternal Instincts.
  • O’Brien, Catherine, Women’s Fictional Responses to the First World War. A Comparative Study of Selected Texts by French and German Writers (New York: Peter Lang, 1997).
  • O’Brien, Catherine. “Beyond the Ca[n]non: French Women’s Responses to the First World War.” French Cultural Studies 7 (1996).
  • Ouditt, Sharon, Fighting forces, writing women: identity and ideology in the First World War, (New York: Routledge, 1994).
  • Pedersen, Susan. “Gender, Welfare, and Citizenship in Britain during the Great War.” American Historical Review 95, no. 4 (1990).
  • Quataert, Jean, “Women’s Wartime Service under the Cross: Patriotic Communities in Germany, 1912-1918.” In Great War, Total War. Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front, 1814 – 1918, ed. Stig Förster and Roger Chickering (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2000): 453-484.
  • Robert, Jean-Louis. “Women and Work in France during the First World War.” in The Upheaval of War: Family, Work, and Welfare in Europe, 1914-1918. ed. Rachel Wall and Jay Winter (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Roberts, Krisztina, “Gender, Class and Patriotism. Women’s Paramilitary Units in First World War Britain,” International History Review 19, no. 1 (1997): 52-65.
  • Rose, Sonya O., “Women on the Home Front in World War I,” in Journal of British Studies 42, no. 3 (2003): 406-411.
  • Schönberger, Bianca,Motherly Heroines and Adventurous Girls: Red Cross Nurses and Women Army Auxiliaries in the First World War,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century Germany.
  • Schulte, Regina, “Käthe Kollwitz’s Sacrifice,” History Workshop Journal 41 (1996): 193-221.
  • Schulte, Regina, “The Sick Warrior’s Sister: Nursing during the First World War,” in Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, edited by Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997), 121-142.
  • Smith, Melvin Charles, “Gender and Heroism in the British Army: Women and the Victorian Cross,” Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military, 17, no. 1 (1999), 3-17.
  • Soloway, Richard. “Eugenics and Pronatalism in Wartime Britain.” in The Upheaval of War.
  • Stovall, Tyler, “The Color Lines behind the Lines. Racial Violence in France during the Great War,” American Historical Review 103, no. 3 (1998): 737-769.
  • Summers, Anne. Angels and Citizens: British Women as Military Nurses, 1854-1914 (London: Routledge, 1987).
  • Thébaud, Francoise, The Great War and the Triumph of Sexual Division, in A History of Women in the West, vol. 5: Towards a Cultural Identity in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1994): 20-75.
  • Thom, Deborah, Nice Girls and Rude Girls. Women Workers in World War I (London: I.B. Tauris, 1998).
  • Thom, Deborah. “Tommy’s Sister: Women at Woolwich in World War I.” in Minorities and Outsiders. vol. 2 of Patriotism: The Making and Unmaking of British National Identity. ed. Raphael Samuel (London: Routledge, 1989).
  • Thom, Deborah. “Women and Work in Wartime Britain.” in The Upheaval of War. Tickner, Lisa. The Spectacle of Women: Imagery of the Suffrage Campaign, 1907-1914 (London: Chatto and Windus, 1987).
  • Tuten, Jeff M., “Germany and the World Wars,” in Female Soldiers. Combatants or Non-combatants? Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, ed. Nancy Loring Goldman (Westport, Greenwood, 1982): 47-60.
  • Vellacott, Jo. “Feminist Consciousness and the First World War.” in Women and Peace.
  • Watson, Janet S.K., Fighting different wars: experience, memory, and the First Worlld War in Britain, (Cambridge: University Press, 2004).
  • Watson, Janet S. K., “Khaki Girls, VADs, and Tommy’s Sisters: Gender and Class in First World War Britain,” in International Historical Review, 19, no. 1 (1997): 32-51.
  • Wiltsher, Anne. Most Dangerous Women: Feminist Peace Campaigners of the Great War (London: Pandora, 1985).
  • Wollacott, Angela, ‘Khaki Fever’ and its Control: Gender, Class, Age and Sexual Morality on the British Homefront in the First World War,” Journal of Contemporary History 19, no. 2 (1994): 325-347.
  • Woollacott, Angela, On her their lives depend: munitions workers in the Great War, (Berkeley: California University Press, 1994).

Women in (Party) Politics during the Interwar Years

  •  Alberti, Johanna. Beyond Suffrage: Feminists in War and Peace, 1914-1928 (London: Macmillan, 1989).
  • Baumann, Ulla. “Emancipation, and Politics in the Confessional Women’s Movement in Germany, 1900-1933,” in Borderlines: Gender and Identities in War and Peace 1870-1930, 285-306.
  • Boak, Helen L., “Our Last Hope: Women’s Votes for Hitler—A Reappraisal,” German Studies Review 12 (1989): 289-310.
  • Boak, Helen L., “Women in Weimar Germany: The Frauenfrage and the Female Vote,” in Social Change and Political Development in the Weimar Republic, ed. Richard Bessel and E.J. Fechtwanger (London: Croom Helm, 1981): 155-73.
  • Bock, Women, 174-205.
  • Bridenthal, Renate and Claudia Koonz, “Beyond Kinder, Küche, Kirche: Weimar Women in Politics and Work,” in When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany, 33-65.
  • Bridenthal, Renate, “Class Struggle Around the Hearth: Women and Domestic Service in the Weimar Republic,” in Toward the Holocaust: The Social and Economic Collapse of the Weimar Republic, ed. Michael Dobkowsky and Isidor Walliman (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983), 243-64.
  • Bridenthal, Renate, “Professional Housewives, Stepsisters of the Women’s Movement,” in When Biology Became Destiny: Women In Weimar and Nazi Germany, 153-73.
  • Bridenthal, Renate, Atina Grossmann and Marion A. Kaplan, “Introduction: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany.” In When Biology Became Desinty, 1-32.
  • Bussey, Gertrude, and Margaret Tims. Pioneers for Peace: Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, 1915-1965 (London: WILPF British Section, 1980).
  • Cott, Nancy F. The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New HavenL Yale University Press, 1987).
  • Dyhouse, Carol. Feminism and the Family in England, 1880-1939 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989)
  • Evans, Richard J., “German Women and the Triumph of Hitler,” Journal of Modern History 48 (1976). Supplement: 123-75.
  • Evans, Richard J., Comrades and Sisters, Feminism, Socialism and Pacifism in Europe, 1870-1945 (New York: St. Martin’s, 1987).
  • Evans, Richard, The Feminist Movement in Germany 1894-1933 (London: Sage, 1976).
  • Gordon, Felicia, The Integral Feminist: Madeleine Pelletier, 1874-1939 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990).
  • Grossman, Atina, “Crisis, Reaction, and Resistance: Women in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s,” in Class, Race and Sex: The Dynamics of Control, ed. Amy Swerdlow and Hanna Lessinger (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1983): 60-74.
  • Hagemann, Karen, “Equal but Not the Same: The Social Democratic Women’s Movement in the Weimar Republic,” in Bernstein to Brandt. A Short History of German Social Democracy, ed. Roger Fletcher, (London: Edward Arnold, 1987). 133-43.
  • Hagemann, Karen, “Men’s Demonstrations and Women’s Protest: Gender in Collective Action in the Urban Working-Class Milieu during the Weimar Republic,” Gender and History 5 (1993): 101-119.
  • Harvey, Elizabeth, “Pilgrimages to the ‘Bleeding Border’: Gender and Rituals of Nationalist Protest in Germany, 1919-39,” Women’s History Review 9, no. 2 (2000): 201-229.
  • Hause Stephen, with Anne Kenney. Women’s Suffrage and Social Politics in the French Third Republic (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
  • Higonnet, Margaret R., and Patrice L-R Higonnet. “The Double Helix.” in Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars.
  • Ingram, Norman. The Politics of Dissent: Pacifism in France, 1919-1939 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1991).
  • Kaplan, Marion A., “German Jewish Feminism in the Twentieth Century,” Jewish Social Studies 38 (1976): 38-53.
  • Kaplan, Marion A.,. The Jewish Feminist Movement in Germany: The Campaigns of the Jüdischer Frauenbund 1904-1938 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979).
  • Kent, Susan Kingsley. “Gender Reconstruction after the Great War.” in British Feminism in the Twentieth Century. ed. Harold L. Smith. (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1990).
  • Kent, Susan Kingsley. Making Peace: The Reconstruction of Gender in Interwar Britain. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993).
  • Koonz, Claudia, “Conflicting Allegiances: Political Ideology and Women Legislators in Weimar Germany,” Signs 1 (1976): 633-83.
  • Koonz, Claudia, “Nazi Women Before 1933: Rebels Against Emancipation,” Social Science Quarterly 56 (1976): 553-63.
  • Koonz, Claudia, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, The Family and Nazi Ideology, 1919-1945, (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986).
  • Kundrus, Birthe, “Gender Wars: The First World War and the Construction of Gender Relations in the Weimar Republic,” in Home/Front: The Military, War and Gender in 20th Century.
  • Offen, European Feminisms, 277-310.
  • Peterson, Brian, “The Politics of Working-Class Women in the Weimar Republic,” Central European History 10 (1977): 87-111.
  • Pierson, Ruth Roach, ed. Women and Peace: Theoretical, Historical and Practical Perspectives. (London: Croom Helm, 1987).
  • Reagin, Nancy Ruth, A German Women’s Movement: Class and Gender in Hannover, 1880-1933, (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press, 1995).
  • Renate Pore, A Conflict of Interest: Women in German Social Democracy (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1981).
  • Reynolds, Siân, France between the Wars: Gender and Politics (London: Routledge, 1996).
  • Reynolds, Sian. “Marianne’s Citizens? Women, the Republic and Universal Suffrage in France.” in Women, State and Revolution. ed. Sian Reynolds (Amherst: Massacusettes University Press, 1987).
  • Rouette, Susanne, “Mothers and Citizens: Gender and Social Policy in Germany after the First World War,” Central European History 30 (1997): 48-66.
  • Scheck, Raffael, “German Conservatism and Female Political Activism in Early Weimar Republic,” German History 15, no. 1 (1997): 34-55.
  • Scheck, Raffael, “Women against Versailles: Materialism and Nationalism of Female Bourgeois Politicians in the Early Weimar Republic,” German Studies Review 22, no. 1 (1999): 21-42.
  • Smith, Changing Lives, 438-443.
  • Smith, Paul. Feminism and the Third Republic: Women’s Political and Civil Rights in France, 1918-1945 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1996).
  • Sneeringer, Julia, Winning Women’s Votes. Propaganda and Politics in Weimar Germany (Chapel Hill:North Carolina University Press 2002).
  • Stephenson, Jill, “National Socialism and Women Before 1933,” in The Nazi Machtergreifung, ed. Peter Stachura (Boston: Allen and Unwin, 1983).
  • Thönnessen, Werner, The Emancipation of Women: The Rise and Decline of the Women’s Movement in German Social Democracy 1863-1933 (London: Pluto Press, 1973).
  • Vellacott, Jo, “Feminism as if All People Mattered: Working to Remove the Causes of War, 1919-1929,” Contemporary European History 10, no. 3 (2001), 375-394.
  • Wishnia, Judith. “Feminism and Pacifism: The French Connection.” in Women and Peace.

The Rationalization of Everyday Lives during the Interwar Years

  • Bock, Gisela and Pat Thane, eds., Maternity and Gender Policies, Women and the Rise of European Welfare States, 1880-1950 (New York: Routledge, 1991).
  • Bridenthal, Renate, Atina Grossman, and Marion Kaplan, eds. When Biology became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984).
  • Dyer, Colin, Population and Society in Twentieth-Century France (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1978).
  • Gittins, Diane, Fair Sex: Family Size and Structure in Britain, 1930-1939 (New York: St. Martin’s, 1982).
  • Grossman, Atina. “Satisfaction is Domestic Happines: Mass Working-Class Sex Reform Organizations in the Weimar Republic,” in Towards the Holocaust: The Social and Economic Collapse of the Weimar Republic, ed. Michael Dobkowsky and Isidor Walliman (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1983): 243-64.
  • Grossman, Atina. “The New Woman and the Rationalization of Sexuality in Weimar Germany” in Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, ed. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983): 153-71.
  • Grossman, Atina, “Girlkultur or Thoroughly Rationalized Female: A New Woman in Weimar Germany?” in Women in Culture and Politics: A Century of Change, ed. Judith Friedlander et. al., (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986): 62-80.
  • Grossmann, Atina, Reforming Sex: The German Movement for Birth Control and Abortion Reform, 1920-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995).
  • Hagemann, Karen, “Rationalizing Family Work: Municipal Family Welfare and Urban Working-Class Mothers in Germany,” Social Politics, 4, no.1 (Spring 1997): 19-48.
  • Hagemann, Karen. “Of ‘Old’ and ‘New’ Housewives: Norms and Standards of Everyday Housework and the Limits of Household Rationalization in the Urban Working Class Milieu of the Weimar Republic,” International Review of Social History 41 (1996): 305-330.
  • Hoffmann, David L., “Mothers in the Motherland: Stalinist Pronatalism in its Pan-European Context,” Journal of Social History, 34, no. 1 (2000), 35-54.
  • Holzman, Ellen, “The Pursuit of Married Love: Women’s Attitudes Toward Sexuality and Marriage in Great Britain, 1918-1939,” Journal of Social History 16 (1982).
  • Hyman, Paula E., “The Transnational Experience of Jewish Women in Western and Central Europe after World War I,” Michael: On the History of Jews in the Diaspora, 16 (2004), 21-33.
  • Lacey, Kate, Feminine Frequencies: Gender, German Radio and the Public Sphere, 1923-1945. (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1998).
  • Lewis, Jane. “Models of Equality for Women: The Case of State Support for Children in Twentieth-Century Britain.” in Maternity and Gender Policies: Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880s-1910s. ed. Gisela Bock and Pat Thane (London: Routledge, 1991).
  • McMillan, James F. Housewife or Harlot? The Place of Women in French Society, 1870-1940. (New York: St. Martin’s, 1981).
  • Offen, Karen. “Body Politics: Women, Work, and the Politics of Motherhood in France, 1920-1950.” in Maternity and Gender Policies.
  • Pedersen, Susan. “Catholicism, Feminism, and the Politics of Family during the Late Third Republic,” in Mothers in a New World.
  • Pedersen, Susan. Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State: Britain and France, 1914-1945.
  • Roberts, Mary Louise, Civilization without Sexes: Reconstructing Gender in Postwar France, 1917-1927(Chicago: University Press, 1994).
  • Skocpol, Theda. Protecting Mothers and Soldiers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press 1992).
  • Smith, Changing Lives, 410-438.
  • Sohn, Anne-Marie, “Between the Wars in France and Britain,” in Toward a Cultural identity in the Twentieth Century, ed. Françoise Thébaud, vol. 5.: A History of Women in the West (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard, 1994): 92-119.
  • Soloway, Richard, Birth Control and the Population Question in England, 1877-1930 (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press 1982).
  • Soloway, Richard, Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain, (Chapel Hill, North Carolina University Press, 1990).
  • Usborne, Cornelia, “Wise Women, Wise Men and Abortion in the Weimar Republic: Gender, Class, Medicine,” in Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, ed. Lynn Abrams and Elizabeth Harvey, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997):, 143-177.
  • Usborne, Cornelia, The Politics of the Body in Weimar Germany: Women’s Reproductive Rights and Duties, (London: Macmillian, 1992).
  • Usborne, Cornelia. “The Christian Churches and the Regulation of Sexuality in Weimar Germany,” in Disciplines of Faith: Studies in Religion, Politics and Patriarchy, ed. Jim Obelkevitch, Lyndal Roper and Raphael Samuel (New York: Routledge, 1977), 99-112.
  • Von Ankum, Katharina, Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture (Berkeley: California University Press, 1997).

Women in the Third Reich

  • Bergen, Doris L., Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press, 1996).
  • Bock, Gisela, “Racism and Sexism in Nazi-Germany: Motherhood, Compulsory Sterilization and the State,” in When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany, 400-21.
  • Bock, Gisela, “No Children at Any Cost: Perspectives on Compulsory Sterilization, Sexism and Racism in Nazy Germany,” in Women in Culture and Politics: A Century of Change, ed. Judith Friedlander et. al., (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987): 286-98.
  • Bock, Women,  206-232.
  • Bock, Gisela, “Nazi Gender Policies and Women’s History,” in: Toward a Cultural identity in the twentieth century, ed. by Françoise Thébaud, vol. 5.: A History of Women in the West (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1994), 149-176.
  • Cosner, Shaaron, Victoria Cosner, Women Under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998).
  • Heinemann, Elizabeth D., “Whose Mothers? Generational Difference, War, and the Nazi Cult of Motherhood,” Journal of Women’s History 12, no. 4 (2001): 138-163.
  • Kirkpatrick, Clifford, Nazi Germany: Its Women and Family Life  (New York: Bobbs-Merril, 1938).
  • Koonz, Claudia, Mothers in the Fatherland: Women, The Family and Nazi Ideology, 1919-1945 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986).
  • Koonz, Claudia, “The ‘Women’s Question’ in Authoritarian Regimes,” in Becoming visible, 463-492.
  • Mason, Tim. “Women in Germany, 1925-1940: Family, Welfare and Work.” History Workshop Journal, Part I: 1 (1976): 74-113; Part II: 2 (1976): 5-32.
  • Pine, Lisa, Nazi Family Policy, 1933-1945 (Oxford: Berg, 1997).
  • Rupp, Leila J., “I Don’t Call that Volksgemeinschaft: Women, Class and War in Nazi Germany,” In Women, War and Revolution, ed. Carol R. Berkin and Clara M. Lovett (New York, Holmes and Meier, 1980).
  • Rupp, Leila J., “Mothers of the Volk: The Images of Women in Nazi Germany,” Signs 3 (1979): 362-79.
  • Sachse, Carola, “Industrial Housewives: Women’s Social Work in Factories of Nazi Germany,” in Women in History, ed. Jane Caplan, (New York: Haworth, 1987): 11-12.
  • Schoppmann, Claudia, “ National Socialist Policies Towards Female Homosexuality,” in Gender Relations in German History: Power, Agency and Experience from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, 177-188.
  • Smith, Changing Lives, 454-496.
  • Stephenson, Jill R., “Women’s Labor Service in Nazi Germany.” Central European History 15 (1982): 241-65.
  • Stephenson, Jill R., Women in Nazi Society, (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1976).
  • Stephenson, Jill R.,. “The Nazi Organisation of Women: 1933-39,” in The Shaping of the Nazi State, ed. Peter Stachura. London: Croom Helm, 1978.
  • Stephenson, Jill R., The Nazi Organisation of Women (London: Croom Helm, 1981).
  • Stibbe, Matthew, Women in the Third Reich, (London: Arnold, 2003).
  • Stolzfus, Nathan, Resistance of the Heart: Intermarriage and the Rosenstrasse Protest in Nazi Germany (New York, 1996)
  • Taberner, Stuart, ”Philsemitism in recent German Film: Aimee and Jaguar, Rosenstraße and das Wunder von Bern,”  German Life and Letters 58, no. 3 (2005 ): 357-372.
  • Von Meding, Dorothee, Courageous Hearts: Women and the Anti-Hitler Plot of 1944 (Providence RI: Berghahn Books, 1997).
  • Weindling, Paul, “Compulsory Sterilisation in National Socialist Germany.” Germany History 5 (1987): 10-24.

Gendering the Holocaust

  • Baer, Hester, Nanda Herbermann, Elizabeth R. Baer, The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbruck Concentration Prison for Women (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2002).
  • Baumel, Judith Tydor, “Social Interaction among Jewish Women in Crisis during the Holocaust: A Case Study,” Gender and History, 7, no. 1 (1995): 64-85.
  • Baumel, Judith Tydor, “Women’s Agency and Survival Strategies during the Holocaust,” Women’s Studies International Forum 22, no. 3 (1999): 329-347.
  • Bock, Women, 206-232.
  • Crane, Cynthia, Divided Lives: The Untold Stories of Jewish-Christian Women in Nazi Germany (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000).
  • Frevert, Ute, “Between Tradition and Modernity: Women in the Third Reich,” in Frevert, Women in German History: From Bourgeois Emancipation to Sexual Liberation (Oxford: Berg, 1990): 205-253.
  • Gelber, Mark H., Melancholy Pride: Nation, Race, and Gender in the German Literature of Cultural Zionism (Tübingen: M. Niemeyer, 2000).
  • Grau, ed., Hidden Holocaust? Lesbian and Gay Persecution in Nazi Germany (London: Cassell, 1995).
  • Kaplan, Marion, The Jewish Feminist Movement in Germany: The Campaigns of the Jüdischer Frauenbund 1904-1938 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979).
  • Laska, Vera, Women in the Resistance and the Holocaust (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1983).
  • Morrison, Jack G., Ravensbruck: Everyday Life in a Women’s Concentration Camp 1935-45, (Princeton: Wiener 2000).
  • Mushaben, Joyce Marie, „Memory and the Holocaust: processing the past through a gendered lens,“ History of the Human Sciences 17, no. 2-3 (2004): 147-185.
  • Ofer, Dalia and Leonore J. Weitzman, eds., Women in the Holocaust (New Haven: Yale University Press 1998).
  • Quack, Sibylle, Between Sorrow and Strength: Women Refugees of the Nazi Period (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995).
  • Rittner, Carol, and K. John Roth, eds., Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust (New York: Paragon House, 1993).
  • Roseman, Mark, A Past in Hiding: Memory and Survival in Nazi Germany (New York: Metropolis Books, 2001).
  • Schwertfeger, Ruth, Women of Theresienstadt. Voices from a Concentration Camp (Oxford: Berg, 1989).
  • Waxman, Zoe, “Unheard Testimony, Untold Stories: The Representation of Women’s Holocaust Experiences,” Women’s History Review 12, no. 4 (2003), 661-677.

Gender and the Second World War: Women in the Industry and the Military

  • Adler, Karen H., “Reading National Identity: Gender and ‘Prostitution’ during the Occupation,” Modern and Contemporary France 7, no. 1, (1999): 47-57.
  • Archer, Bernice and Fedorowich, Kent, “The Women of Stanley: Internment in Hong Kong, 1942-45,” Women’s History Review 5, no. 3 (1996), 373-399.
  • Bartov, Omer, Hitler’s Army. Soldiers, Nazis, and War in the Third Reich (Oxford: Berg, 1991).
  • Bartov, Omer, Murder in Our Midst. The Holocaust, Industrial Killing, and Representation (Oxford: Berg, 2000).
  • Bowen, Wayne H., “Pilar Primo de Rivera and the Axis Temptation,” Historian, 67, no. 1 (2005): 62-72.
  • Braybon, Gail and Penny Summerfield, eds., Out of the Cage: Women’s Experiences in Two World Wars (London: Pandora, 1987).
  • Browning, Christopher R., Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).
  • Browning, Christopher R., Ordinary Men. Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland (New York: HarperCollins, 1992).
  • Byles, Joan Montgomery, War, Women, and Poetry, 1914-1945: British and German Writers and Activists (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1995).
  • Campbell, D’Ann, “Women in Combat. The World War II Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union,” Journal of Military History 57 (1993): 301-323.
  • DeGroot, Gerard J., “Whose finger on the trigger? Mixed anti-aikraft batteries and the female combat taboo,”  War in History 4, no. 4 (1997): 434-453.
  • Ford, Sarah, One up: A Woman in action with the SAS, (LondonL HarperCollins, 1997).
  • Fountain, Nigel, ed., Women at War (London: M. O’Mara, 2002).
  • Grazia, Victoria De, How Fascism Ruled Women: Italy, 1922-1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992)
  • Harvey, Elizabeth, Women and the Nazi East : Agents and Witnesses of Germanization (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003).
  • Higgonet, Margaret, Jean Jenson, Sonya Michel, and Margaret Weitz, eds., Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987).
  • McDowell, Linda, “Cultural Memory, Gender and Age: Young Latvian Women’s Narrative Memories of War-time Europe,” Journal of Historical Geography 30, no. 4 (2004): 701-728.
  • Pennington, Reina, Wings, Women, and War: Soviet Airwomen in World War II Combat. (Lawrence: Kansas University Press 2001).
  • Rose, Sonya O., “Sex, Citizenship and the Nation in World War II Britain,” American Historical Review 103 ( 1998): 1147-1176.
  • Rose, Sonya O., Which People’s War? National Identity and Citizenship in Wartime Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).
  • Rupp, Leila J., Mobilizing Women for War. Germany and American Propaganda, 1939-1945 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980).
  • Schneider, Karen, Loving arms: British women writing the Second World War (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997).
  • Schwartz, Paula, “The Politics of Food and Gender in Occupied Paris,” Modern and Contemporary France, 7, no. 1 (1999). 35-45.
  • Schwartz, Paula, “ “Partisans and gender politics in Vichy France,” French Historical Studies 16, no. 1 (1989 ): 126-151.
  • Shukert, Elfrieda and Barbara Scibetta, War Brides of World War II (Novato: Presidio Press, 1988).
  • Stone, Tessa, “Creating a (Gendered?) Military Identity: The Women’s Auxiliary Air Force in Great Britain in the Second World War,” Women’s History Review 8, no. 4 (1999): 605-624.
  • Summerfield, Penny and Corinna Peniston-Bird, “Women in the Firing Line: The Home Guard and the Defence of Gender Boundaries in Britain in the Second World War,” Women’s History Review, 9, no. 2 (2000): 231-255.
  • Summerfield, Penny, Reconstructing Women’s Wartime Lives, (Manchester: Manchester University press, 1998).
  • Thebaud, Francoise, “Deuxieme Guerre, Femmes et Rapports de sexe: essai d’historiographie,” Cahiers d’Histoire du Temps Present 4 (1998): 227-248.
  • Willmot Louise, “Women in the Third Reich. The Auxiliary Military Service Law of 1944,” German History 2 (1985): 10-20.

Re-Gendering in Post-World War II Europe

  • Barnouw, Dagmar, Germany 1945. Views of War and Violence, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996).
  • Biddiscombe, Perry, “Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the U.S. Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria, 1945-1948,” Journal of Social History, 34, no. 3 (2001): 611-647.
  • Biess, Frank, “Survivors of Totalitarianism: Returning POWs and the Reconstruction of Masculine Citizenship in West Germany, 1945-1955,” in The Miracle Years Revisited. A Cultural History of West Germany, 1949-1968, ed. Hanna Schissler (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001), 57-82.
  • Biess, Frank, “‘Pioneers of a New Germany?’ Returning POWs from the Soviet Union and the Making of East German Citizens, 1945-1950,” Central European History 32 (1999): 143-180.
  • Carter, Erica, How German Is She? Postwar German Reconstruction and the Consuming Women, (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1997).
  • Cooper, Alice Holmes, Paradoxes of Peace. German Peace Movements since 1945, (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1996).
  • Duchen, Claire, and Irene Bandhauer-Schoffmann, When the War Was Over: Women, War and Peace in Europe, 1940-1956 (New York: Continuum, 2000).
  • Fehrenbach, Heide, “Rehabilitating Fatherland: Race and German Remasculinazation,” Signs 24 (1995): 102-127.
  • Fehrenbach, Heide, Cinema in Democratizing Germany. Reconstructing National Identity After Hitler, (Chapel Hill: North Carolina University Press 1995).
  • Grossmann, Atina, “Trauma, Memory, and Motherhood: Germans and Jewish Displaced Persons in Post-Nazi Germany, 1945-1949,” Archiv für Sozialgeschichte 38 (1998): 215-239.
  • Heineman, Elizabeth, “Complete Families, Half Families, No Families at All: Female-Headed Households and the Reconstruction of the Family in the Early Federal Republic,” Central European History 29 (1996): 29-60.
  • Heineman, Elizabeth, “The Hour of the Woman: Memories of Germany’s ‘Crisis Years’ and West German National Identity,” American Historical Review 101 (1996): 354-395.
  • Moeller, Robert G., “’The Last Soldier of the Great War’ and Tales of Family Reunions in the Federal Republic of Germany,” Signs 24 (1998): 129-145.
  • Moeller, Robert G., “War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany,” American Historical Review 101 (1996), 1008-1048.
  • Moeller, Robert G., ed., West Germany under Construction: Politics, Society, and Culture in the Adenauer Era, (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press, 1997).
  • Moeller, Robert G., Protecting Motherhood. Women and the Family in the Politics of Postwar West Germany, (Berkeley: California University Press 1993).
  • Moeller, Robert G., War Stories: The Search for a Usable Past in the Federal Republic of Germany, (Berkeley: California University Press 2001).
  • Moeller, Robert G., „What did you do in the war Mutti? Courages women, compassionate commanders, and stories of the Second World War,“ German History 22, no. 4 (2004): 563-594.
  • Poiger, Uta, “A New ‘Western’ Hero?: Reconstructing German Masculinity in the 1950’s,” Signs 24 (1998): 147-169.
  • Sluga, Glenda, “Cold War Casualties: Ethnicity, Gender, and the Writing of History,” Women’s Studies International Forum, 19,no. 1-2 (1996): 75-85.
  • Teo, Hsu-ming, “The Continuum of Sexual Violence in Occupied Germany, 1945-49,” Women’s History Review 5, no. 2 (1996): 191-218.
  • Tröger, Annemarie. “Between Rape and Prostitution: Survival Strategies and Chances for Emancipation for Berlin Women after World War II.” in Women, Culture, and Politics: A Century of Change. ed. Judith Friedlander, et. al. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986).
  • Webster, Wendy, “Reconstructing Boundaries: Gender, War and Empire in British Cinema, 1945-1950,” Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 23, no. 1 (2003): 43-57.
  • Wittner, Lawrence, “Gender Roles and Nuclear Disarmament Activism, 1954-1965,” Gender & History 12 (2000): 197-222.